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Practical Holography 3rd Edition
Graham Saxby
482 pages
IOP
isbn 0-7503-0912-1

Review by Michael Harrison, April 2004
www.dragonseye.com/Holography

PDF version of this review

 

Introduction
Overview of the book
Differences between this and the previous edition
So, the book is perfect is it?
Summary
Other reviews.
TOC

 

Introduction

The release of Graham Saxbyís third edition of Practical Holography shows how well the author understands what people need from a complete book on holography.† He takes the reader through what a hologram is, the history of holography, what sort of light sources can be used to make a hologram, what kinds have been made to date and so on through to making and displaying your own images.

The book is written in a clear and concise manner and is augmented by additional tips, definitions, and observations in the margins as well as extensive source references at the end of each chapter.

If youíre new to the field or hobby of holography you should make this one of the first books you buy.† Even if youíre an old hand this book will probably show you a few new tricks.

Overview of the book

The first four chapters (What is a hologram, How holography began, Light sources for holography, The basic types of hologram) should be read through by anyone starting out in holography. You donít necessarily need to understand everything in those chapters right off, but by reading those basics youíll be better prepared to digest the rest of the book.

The first chapter explains what a hologram is, interference, diffraction, amplitude and phase gratings in a way that most interested readers will have no trouble understanding.

The book continues through the history of holography, the light sources used to make holograms, the basic types of holograms and describes the materials and processing used in making holograms.

Itís in chapter six that Saxby begins explaining how the reader can make their first single-beam hologram using a gas or diode laser. This chapter has complete details on all the equipment needed, how to set it up, shoot it, process the exposed film and view your finished hologram.† If you are unfortunate enough to end up with a dim or non-existent image (which is likely to happen the first time) the author takes you through the steps needed to find out what happened and how to fix the problem.

Chapter seven then takes the reader through more advanced single-beam configurations and introduces a few new tools and methods such as using a spatial filter, index matching film and multi-exposure techniques.

The rest of the book shows a similar progression, taking the reader through more complicated steps such as making transfer holograms, building a holography lab, creating master and copy holograms, homemade optical elements and so on.

For those with a mathematical bent, the first three appendices contain information youíll want to read and digest after going through the first few chapters of the book.† These appendices are clearly written and approachable even to those who arenít particularly adept at mathematics.† Saxby also includes an appendix with worksheets for computing the geometries needed for several forms of multicolor holograms.

If youíve been around the block a time or two (or at least ridden with someone else) you might think that this book would offer little new material.† In fact, there is plenty of material for the more experienced holographer.† The material ranges from information on fiber optics use, color holography, edge lit holograms and beyond. See the included table of contents from chapter 16 on.

Differences between this and the previous edition

Extensive side notes have been added which expand on and clarify the information given in the main text. These comments could have been left out and the book would not have suffered but by adding them the author gives information that enriches the main text.

The chapter on light sources used for holography has been expanded to include information on diode lasers as well as new information on DPSS (diode-pumped solid-state) and white light laser sources.

The pages devoted to copying holograms have been greatly expanded from one chapter with six pages to two chapters of nearly thirty pages.† These cover several techniques for copying both transmission and reflection holograms and close by covering the relatively new technique of edge lighting holograms.

Natural color holography now has a full chapter devoted to it which starts by covering how we perceive color as well as details on how the eye responds to light of differing wavelengths. †Details are then given on how individual primary colors are commonly combined to form colors that you wonít find in the natural spectrum.† From there the author describes how lasers of differing color may be combined on the table to create a simulated full-color image. While this chapter wonít give you all the details you need for natural color holography it will get you started and there are several references at the end of the chapter that can carry you further.

A chapter has been added covering non-silver processes for making holograms and even includes limited information on coating your own glass plates.† This chapter starts out by mentioning the high sensitivity of silver-halide emulsions and discussing the major reasons for its use.† Saxby moves on to the details of dichromated gelatin (DCG) use and outlines methods for mixing DCG, coating glass plates, exposure and processing.† If youíre interested in extremely bright holograms, this section will definitely whet your appetite for rolling your own plates.† From there he moves on to brief discussions of SHSG, photopolymers, photothermoplastics and other processes.† He doesnít go into the same detail in the later sections as he does for DCG but there are plenty of references at the end of the chapter.

Holographic stereograms now have an entire chapter devoted to them.† This chapter includes instructions for making several different kinds of stereogram and details for creating good source material, usually photographs.† The author even outlines some methods for computer control of a simple holoprinter as well as color control to obtain achromatic and full-color transfers.

A new chapter on the use of holography in biology and medicine includes information on hologram use for dental training, ophthalmology and stereogram use with PET and CAT scan data.

The appendix on processing formulas has been updated and expanded and now includes instruction on creating your own emulsion.

So, the book is perfect is it?

While there are a few typographical errors that the publisher is working to correct in future printings, there really isnít much that I could find fault with. A few relatively minor complaints are detailed below.

Interferometer testing isnít introduced until chapter 11 but making your first hologram begins in chapter 6.† The reasoning behind this is likely twofold.† 1) All the table setups prior to chapter 11 involve using a single beam for the reference and object light and there are less stringent stability requirements for single-beam setups.† 2) Setting up an interferometer requires two mirrors, one beam splitter and one lens as well as mounts for all of those elements and Saxby makes an effort to minimize the equipment needed to get going.† Forcing the reader to buy additional optics needed only for the interferometer could be seen as an impediment to bringing people into the field.† My only complaint with that reasoning (if that really is what determined where table testing was placed in the book) is that knowing your environment can be critical in understanding your failures when starting out in holography. You will have a few failures in the beginning, especially if youíre not working in a dedicated laser lab.† While single-beam setups are less sensitive to vibration problems, they arenít immune and testing your area with an interferometer can give you invaluable information about what limitations you start out with.

Not all film listed is still available (Kodak no longer makes plates) or available to the general public (most photopolymer material). This is not surprising as this is an area of the field that is in constant change.† New materials are appearing as old materials are being refined or disappear completely. †Youíd be better served by doing an Internet search or checking in the Holography Forum (www.holographyforum.org) for the current state of the art.

My soft cover copy is only three months old and is already coming apart at the binding.† This may be a problem with that particular run.

All three editions of Practical Holography have included a hologram of some kind.† The first edition actually included two, an embossed hologram on the cover and a silver-halide hologram on the first page.† Unfortunately the second and third editions have only included embossed holograms on the cover and while Iím sure that type was selected for the relatively low production cost, they are not the best examples of the art.† The depth of field available with embossed holograms is severely limited and while they are visible in almost any light, embossed holograms lack the impressive sense of 3D available from simple reflection holograms on silver-halide or photopolymer.

Summary

I have no trouble at all in recommending the third edition of Practical Holography to everyone interested in holography.† Thereís something for every holographer in this book.
Table of contents

 


Other Reviews

http://www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~haldun/opnreview.pdf

http://www.holographer.org

http://www.designerinlight.com/holo/graham.htm

Amazon.com listing

 


TOC

Foreword to first edition

 

xv

Preface to third edition

 

xvii

Preface to second edition

 

xviii

From the preface to first edition

 

xx

PART 1 PRINCIPLES OF HOLOGRAPHY

 

1

 

Chapter 1 What is a hologram?

 

3

 

Stereoscopy

 

3

 

Defining the problem

 

6

 

The problem solved

 

7

 

Interference

 

8

 

An experiment with interference fringes

 

8

 

Diffraction

 

11

 

Amplitude and phase gratings

 

13

 

Chapter 2 How holography began

 

16

 

References

 

22

 

Chapter 3 Light sources for holography

 

24

 

Light as an electromagnetic phenomenon

 

24

 

Propagation of electromagnetic waves

 

24

 

Oscillators

 

26

 

Properties of light beams

 

27

 

Atoms and energy

 

28

 

Stimulated emission

 

29

 

The three-level solid-state laser

 

30

 

Q-switching

 

33

 

Four-level gas lasers

 

34

 

Mirrors and windows in CW lasers

 

35

 

Ion lasers

 

37

 

Tunable lasers

 

39

 

Semiconductor (diode) lasers

 

40

 

Diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) lasers

 

41

 

Pseudowhite lasers

 

42

 

Warning notices

 

43

 

Avoiding accidents

 

43

 

Protective eyewear

 

44

 

Pulse laser

 

44

 

The laser itself

 

44

 

Further reading

 

45

 

Chapter 4 The basic types of hologram

 

46

 

Laser transmission holograms

 

46

 

Replaying the image

 

46

 

The real image

 

47

 

Reflection holograms

 

48

 

Phase holograms

 

50

 

Image-plane holograms

 

51

 

White-light transmission holograms

 

52

 

Other types of hologram

 

55

 

Color holography

 

56

 

Embossed holograms

 

56

 

Chapter 5 Materials, exposure and processing

 

57

 

The silver halide process

 

57

 

Technical requirements for holographic materials

 

59

 

Constituents of a developer

 

59

 

Bleaches

 

63

 

Other processes

 

65

 

PART 2 PRACTICAL DISPLAY HOLOGRAPHY

 

67

 

Chapter 6 Making your first hologram

 

69

 

Basic requirements

 

69

 

The laser

 

71

 

A beam expander

 

72

 

Support for the laser

 

73

 

Support for the plate

 

74

 

Setting up for the exposure

 

75

 

Setup with a small diode laser

 

76

 

An alternative setup for a larger laser

 

76

 

Processing solutions

 

77

 

Exposing

 

77

 

Processing

 

77

 

Viewing the image

 

78

 

A one-step real image

 

79

 

Displaying your hologram

 

79

 

What went wrong?

 

80

 

Suppliers of holographic materials

 

81

 

Further reading

 

81

 

Chapter 7 Single-beam techniques 1

 

83

 

Single-beam holograms of unstable subject matter

 

83

 

Building a single-beam frame

 

87

 

A rear-surface mirror system without double reflections

 

89

 

The laser

 

89

 

Triangular benches

 

91

 

Spatial filtering

 

92

 

Setting up with a spatial filter

 

94

 

Making an electrically operated shutter

 

95

 

Safelights

 

96

 

Index-matching fluid

 

97

 

Exposing and processing

 

99

 

Getting the exposure right

 

100

 

Multi-exposure techniques

 

100

 

Chapter 8 Single-beam techniques 2

 

103

 

The transfer principle

 

103

 

Making a reflection master hologram

 

103

 

Transmission transfer holograms

 

105

 

360į holograms

 

106

 

Further applications of single-beam holograms

 

114

 

Mounting and finishing holograms

 

114

 

Troubleshooting

 

115

 

Chapter 9 Bypass holograms

 

120

 

Transmission master holograms

 

121

 

Reflection master holograms

 

123

 

Reflection transfer holograms

 

124

 

Full-aperture transmission transfer holograms

 

124

 

Rainbow holograms

 

125

 

Reflection holograms from transmission masters.

 

125

 

Transflection holograms

 

126

 

Other configurations

 

127

 

References

 

127

 

Chapter 10 Building a holographic laboratory

 

128

 

Laboratory space

 

128

 

The optical table

 

129

 

Building a sand table

 

129

 

Supporting the optical components

 

132

 

Building a concrete table

 

133

 

Metal tables

 

134

 

Table supports

 

135

 

Bases for optical components

 

136

 

Excluding drafts

 

137

 

Mounting the laser

 

138

 

A gantry for overhead equipment

 

139

 

Cantilevers

 

140

 

Draft excluder

 

142

 

Processing area

 

142

 

Storeroom

 

143

 

Display area

 

143

 

References

 

143

 

Chapter 11 Master holograms on a table

 

144

 

Beamsplitters

 

144

 

Other types of beamsplitter

 

145

 

Illuminating the subject

 

146

 

Collimating mountings

 

150

 

Plate holder

 

151

 

Collimating mirror

 

r152

 

How stable is your table

 

153

 

Basic configuration for transmission master holograms

 

156

 

What went wrong?

 

160

 

Backlighting and background illumination

 

161

 

Silhouettes and black holes

 

161

 

Supine subjects

 

162

 

Frontal illumination

 

163

 

Multiple-exposure techniques

 

163

 

Masters for rainbow holograms

 

165

 

Reflection master holograms

 

165

 

Working with plates

 

166

 

Cutting glass

 

167

 

Processing plates

 

168

 

Optical fiber systems for holography

 

168

 

Multimode fibers

 

168

 

Single-mode fibers

 

169

 

Launching the beam

 

169

 

Making holograms with fiber optics

 

170

 

Connecting fiber ends

 

171

 

Further reading

 

172

 

Chapter 12 Transfer reflection holograms

 

173

 

Parallax in transfer holograms

 

174

 

Reflection transfer holograms from transmission masters

 

176

 

How to deal with weak master images

 

178

 

Side and underneath beam master transfers

 

178

 

The role of the Bragg condition

 

181

 

Two-channel transfer holograms

 

182

 

Holograms of stereoscopic pairs of photographs

 

183

 

Multi-channel images

 

184

 

Converging reference beams

 

185

 

Pellicular collimating mirrors

 

187

 

Copying holograms

 

188

 

Copies by scanning

 

189

 

What went wrong?

 

191

 

Chapter 13 Transfer transmission holograms

 

192

 

Full-aperture transfer holograms

 

192

 

Rainbow holograms

 

193

 

Geometry of a rainbow hologram

 

194

 

Slit width

 

196

 

A one-dimensional beam expander

 

197

 

A convergent reference beam

 

198

 

Multi-channel rainbow holograms

 

199

 

What went wrong?

 

200

 

Edge-lit holograms

 

201

 

Chapter 14 Holograms including focusing optics

 

205

 

Demagnifying and magnifying

 

205

 

Image enlargement and reduction

 

207

 

Focused-image holograms

 

210

 

Focused-image reflection holograms

 

212

 

One-step rainbow holograms

 

213

 

Synthetic-slit holograms

 

217

 

Fourier-transform holograms

 

218

 

References

 

223

 

Chapter 15 Homemade optical elements

 

224

 

Liquid-filled lenses

 

224

 

One-dimensional collimators

 

224

 

What to do in case of leaks

 

227

 

Other sizes and focal lengths

 

227

 

Calculations for designing a liquid-filled lens

 

227

 

Two-dimensional collimating lenses

 

229

 

Measurements for a collimating lens

 

230

 

Focusing lenses

 

231

 

Holographic optical elements (HOES)

 

232

 

Calculation of focal length

 

233

 

Holographic diffraction gratings

 

234

 

Holographic lenses

 

235

 

Making holographic mirrors and beamsplitters

 

236

 

Holographic collimating mirrors

 

237

 

Aberrations of HOEs

 

238

 

Multi-beam HOEs

 

239

 

A more uniform laser beam

 

240

 

References

 

240

 

Chapter 16 Portraiture and pulse laser holography

 

241

 

Construction of a ruby laser

 

242

 

Safety considerations

 

242

 

Maintenance of pulse lasers

 

243

 

Other types of pulse laser

 

243

 

Setting up a pulse laser studio

 

243

 

Special problems with holographic portraiture

 

245

 

Lighting for portraiture

 

245

 

Exposure

 

248

 

Processing

 

248

 

Other subject matter

 

248

 

Double and multiple pulses

 

249

 

References

 

240

 

Chapter 17 Holography in natural colors

 

251

 

The eye and color perception

 

252

 

The CIE chromaticity diagram

 

254

 

Color transmission holograms

 

256

 

Denisyuk holograms in color

 

257

 

Transfer holograms in color

 

258

 

Portraiture in color

 

258

 

The problem of color accuracy

 

258

 

The future of color holography

 

259

 

References

 

259

 

Chapter 18 Achromatic and pseudocolor holograms

 

260

 

Achromatic white-light transmission holograms

 

260

 

Dispersion compensation

 

261

 

The achromatic angle for transmission masters

 

262

 

Achromatic reflection holograms

 

264

 

Pseudocolor holograms

 

266

 

Pseudocolor single-beam reflection holograms

 

266

 

Pseudocolor transfer reflection holograms

 

268

 

Accurate color registration by geometry

 

269

 

How to obtain precise registration

 

270

 

Pseudocolor white-light transmission holograms

 

271

 

Obtaining better registration

 

273

 

One-step pseudocolor WLT holograms

 

275

 

References

 

277

 

Chapter 19 Holographic stereograms

 

279

 

The multiplexing principle

 

279

 

Making a multiplexed hologram

 

280

 

Cylindrical stereograms

 

282

 

Making a Cross hologram

 

284

 

Flat image-plane stereograms

 

285

 

The scope of modern stereographic imagery

 

286

 

Geometrier for photographic originations

 

286

 

Perspective and distortion

 

287

 

Wide-angle distortion

 

289

 

Alignment and spacing of the photographs

 

290

 

Long base stereograms

 

291

 

Registration

 

291

 

Computer control of imagery

 

292

 

Basic considerations for a stereographic holoprinter

 

292

 

Exposing

 

295

 

Stereogram masters from photographic prints

 

296

 

Preventing dropouts

 

297

 

Computer image processing

 

298

 

Achromatic and color stereograms

 

300

 

Transferring achromatic stereograms

 

301

 

Full-color stereograms

 

303

 

Full-color WLT transfer stereograms

 

304

 

Full-color reflection transfer stereograms

 

305

 

Color balance

 

307

 

Color accuracy: WLT or reflection?

 

307

 

Calculating distances

 

308

 

Stereograms with full parallax

 

308

 

Perspective correction by pre-distortion

 

309

 

Conical stereograms

 

311

 

Volume multiplexed holograms

 

312

 

References

 

314

 

Chapter 20 Non-silver processes for holography

 

316

 

Dichromated gelatin (DCG)

 

317

 

Rendering DCG sensitive to red light

 

319

 

Coating plates

 

319

 

Exposing

 

320

 

Processing

 

321

 

Sealing the hologram

 

321

 

Color control

 

322

 

Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG)

 

322

 

Photopolymers

 

322

 

Photothermoplastics

 

323

 

Photoresists

 

324

 

Photochromic materials

 

324

 

Bacteriorhodopsin

 

325

 

Photorefractive crystals

 

325

 

References

 

326

 

Chapter 21 Embossed holograms

 

328

 

The initial artwork

 

328

 

Holographic recording

 

329

 

Making the photoresist master

 

329

 

Depositing the conductive layer

 

330

 

The first-generation master

 

331

 

Electroforming of final shims

 

331

 

The embossing process

 

332

 

Further reading

 

333

 

References

 

333

 

Chapter 22 Display techniques

 

334

 

Basic types of hologram and their display

 

335

 

Displaying holograms at home

 

336

 

Window displays

 

339

 

Displays to accompany lectures and presentations

 

339

 

Submitting holograms for exhibitions

 

340

 

Packing a hologram for forwarding to an exhibition

 

340

 

Organizing an exhibition of holograms

 

341

 

Lighting arrangements

 

341

 

Light sources

 

341

 

Installing the exhibits

 

342

 

Floor plan

 

342

 

Relevant information

 

343

 

Environment

 

344

 

Photographing holograms

 

344

 

Equipment

 

345

 

Reflection holograms

 

346

 

Transmission holograms

 

349

 

Viewpoint and parallax

 

350

 

Unusual holograms

 

351

 

Photographing holograms at exhibitions

 

351

 

Using flash

 

351

 

Presenting slides of holograms

 

352

 

Copyright

 

352

 

References

 

352

PART 3 APPLIED HOLOGRAPHY

 

353

 

Chapter 23 Holography and measurement

 

355

 

Direct measurements using holography

 

355

 

The principle of holographic interferometry

 

356

 

Real-time interferometry

 

356

 

Double-exposure interferometry

 

357

 

Time-average interferometry

 

359

 

Strobed interferometry

 

360

 

Visualization of fluid flows

 

360

 

Doubled illuminating beams

 

362

 

A camera for holographic interferometry

 

362

 

Sandwich holography

 

363

 

Reference mirror rotation

 

365

 

Fringe measurement

 

365

 

Speckle interferometry

 

365

 

Holographic contouring

 

366

 

Summary of applications

 

367

 

Further reading

 

368

 

References

 

369

 

Chapter 24 Data storage and diffractive elements

 

371

 

Why holographic data storage?

 

371

 

Data processing

 

372

 

Spatial filtering with Fourier-transform holograms

 

372

 

Fourier-transform holograms: the principles

 

375

 

Image de-blurring

 

376

 

Correlation filtering

 

376

 

Computer-generated holograms (CGHs)

 

378

 

Applications of Fourier-transform CGHs

 

378

 

Strategies for making CGHs

 

380

 

CGHs with a personal computer

 

381

 

Diffractive optical elements

 

381

 

Basic types of DOE

 

382

 

Fabrication of DOES

 

385

 

Applications of DOES

 

386

 

Further reading

 

386

 

References

 

387

 

Chapter 25 Holography in biology and medicine

 

389

 

Dental holography

 

389

 

Histology and pathology

 

389

 

Ophthalmic holography

 

391

 

Multiplexed holograms

 

392

 

Holograms and diagnostics

 

393

 

References

 

393

 

Chapter 26 Holographic motion pictures and video

 

395

 

Making the image move

 

395

 

Real-time holography

 

395

 

Holographic movies

 

397

 

Holographic video and television

 

398

 

References

 

400

 

Chapter 27 Other applications of holography

 

402

 

Far-field holography

 

402

 

Holomicrography

 

403

 

Microwave holography

 

404

 

Infrared holography

 

405

 

Ultraviolet holography

 

405

 

X-ray holography

 

406

 

Electron holography

 

406

 

Acoustic holography

 

406

 

Light-in-flight holography

 

408

 

Polarization holography

 

410

 

Conoscopic holography

 

411

 

Pseudodeep holograms

 

412

 

Digital holography

 

413

 

Conclusion

 

414

 

References

 

414

 

Appendix 1 The mathematical background to holography

 

417

 

Formation of a hologram

 

417

 

Reconstruction of the image

 

420

 

Traveling and standing waves

 

420

 

Bragg diffraction

 

421

 

Effects of shrinkage during processing

 

424

 

Modulation and contrast

 

425

 

Appendix 2 The Fourier approach to image formation

 

429

 

Fourier series

 

431

 

Fourier transform

 

435

 

Reciprocal relationship of x-space and frequency space

 

438

 

The Fourier convolution theorem

 

441

 

Two-dimensional objects

 

443

 

Further reading

 

446

 

Appendix 3 Geometrier for creative holography

 

447

 

Designing a setup for a white-light transmission hologram

 

447

 

Worksheet for multicolor WLT holograms

 

451

 

Multicolor layouts designed by geometry

 

453

 

Locating the hinge point and illumination axis

 

455

 

Multicolor WLT hologram geometry

 

456

 

Multicolor reflection hologram geometry

 

457

 

References

 

458

 

Appendix 4 Fringe stabilization

 

459

 

Error detector

 

460

 

Expanding the fringes

 

460

 

Comparator and amplifier

 

463

 

Transducer

 

463

 

Appendix 5 Processing formulas

 

466

 

Developers for silver halide emulsions

 

466

 

Developers for transmission holograms

 

466

 

Developer for true-color holograms

 

468

 

The pyrochrome process

 

468

 

Image color control

 

469

 

Solution-physical developers

 

470

 

Rehalogenating bleaches

 

470

 

Haze removal

 

471

 

Oxidized developing agents as bleaches

 

471

 

Pre- and post-swelling

 

472

 

Silver halide sensitized gelatin processing

 

472

 

Preparation of red-sensitive DCG emulsion

 

474

 

Making your own holographic emulsion

 

475

 

Electroplating formulas

 

477

 

References

 

478

Index

 

 

 

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Last modified: Sunday, January 31, 2010